lnav - A fancy log file viewer

DESCRIPTION

The log file navigator, lnav, is an enhanced log file viewer that takes advantage of any semantic information that can be gleaned from the files being viewed, such as timestamps and log levels. Using this extra semantic information, lnav can do things like interleaving messages from different files, generate histograms of messages over time, and providing hotkeys for navigating through the file. It is hoped that these features will allow the user to quickly and efficiently zero in on problems.

OPENING PATHS/URLs

The main arguments to lnav are the files, directories, glob patterns, or URLs to be viewed. If no arguments are given, the default syslog file for your system will be opened. These arguments will be polled periodically so that any new data or files will be automatically loaded. If a previously loaded file is removed or replaced, it will be closed and the replacement opened.

Note: When opening SFTP URLs, if the password is not provided for the host, the SSH agent can be used to do authentication.

OPTIONS

Lnav takes a list of files to view and/or you can use the flag arguments to load well-known log files, such as the syslog or apache log files. The flag arguments are:

-a Load all of the most recent log file types. -r Load older rotated log files as well.

When using the flag arguments, lnav will look for the files relative to the current directory and its parent directories. In other words, if you are working within a directory that has the well-known log files, those will be preferred over any others.

Any files given on the command-line are scanned to determine their log file format and to create an index for each line in the file. You do not have to manually specify the log file format. The currently supported formats are: syslog, apache, strace, tcsh history, and generic log files with timestamps.

Lnav will also display data piped in on the standard input. The following options are available when doing so:

-t Prepend timestamps to the lines of data being read in on the standard input. -w file Write the contents of the standard input to this file.

To automatically execute queries or lnav commands after the files have been loaded, you can use the following options:

-c cmd A command, query, or file to execute. The first character determines the type of operation: a colon is used for the built-in commands; a semi-colon for SQL queries; and a pipe symbol (|) for executing a file containing other commands. For example, to open the file “foo.log” and go to the tenth line in the file, you can do:

           lnav -c ':goto 10' foo.log

         This option can be given multiple times to execute multiple
         operations in sequence.

-f file A file that contains commands, queries, or files to execute. This option is a shortcut for “-c ‘|file’”. You can use a dash (-) to execute commands from the standard input.

To execute commands/queries without the opening the interactive text UI, you can pass the ‘-n’ option. This combination of options allows you to write scripts for processing logs with lnav. For example, to get a list of IP addresses that dhclient has bound to in CSV format:

  #! /usr/bin/lnav -nf

  # Usage: dhcp_ip.lnav /var/log/messages

  # Only include lines that look like:
  #    Apr 29 00:31:56 example-centos5 dhclient: bound to 10.1.10.103 -- renewal in 9938 seconds.
  :filter-in dhclient: bound to

  # The log message parser will extract the IP address as col_0, so we
  # select that and alias it to "dhcp_ip".
  ;select distinct col_0 as dhcp_ip from logline;

  # Finally, write the results of the query to stdout.
  :write-csv-to -

DISPLAY

The main part of the display shows the log lines from the files interleaved based on time-of-day. New lines are automatically loaded as they are appended to the files and, if you are viewing the bottom of the files, lnav will scroll down to display the new lines, much like ‘tail -f’.

On color displays, the lines will be highlighted as follows:

  • Errors will be colored in ${ansi_red}red${ansi_norm};
  • warnings will be ${ansi_yellow}yellow${ansi_norm};
  • boundaries between days will be ${ansi_underline}underlined${ansi_norm}; and
  • various color highlights will be applied to: IP addresses, SQL keywords, XML tags, file and line numbers in Java backtraces, and quoted strings.

To give you an idea of where you are spatially, the right side of the display has a proportionally sized ‘scroll bar’ that indicates your current position in the files. The scroll bar will also show areas of the file where warnings or errors are detected by coloring the bar yellow or red, respectively. Tick marks will also be added to the left and right hand side of the bar, for search hits and bookmarks.

A bar on the left side is color coded and broken up to indicate which messages are from the same file. Pressing the left-arrow or ‘h’ will reveal the source file names for each message and pressing again will show the full paths.

When at the bottom of the log view, a summary line will be displayed on the right-hand-side to give you some more information about your logs, including: how long ago the last message was generated, the number of log files, the error rate, and how much time the logs cover. The error rate display shows the errors-per-minute over the last five minutes. A bar chart is also overlaid on the “Error rate” label to show the error rate over the past ten seconds. For example, if there have not been many errors in the past five minutes and there is a sudden spike, the bar chart will fill up completely. But, if there has been a steady stream of errors, then the chart will only partially fill based on the recent error frequency.

Above and below the main body are status lines that display:

  • the current time;
  • the name of the file the top line was pulled from;
  • the log format for the top line;
  • the current view;
  • the line number for the top line in the display;
  • the current search hit and the total number of hits;
  • the number of lines not displayed because of filtering.

Finally, the last line on the display is where you can enter search patterns and execute internal commands, such as converting a unix-timestamp into a human-readable date. The command-line is implemented using the readline library, so the usual set of keyboard shortcuts are available. Most commands and searches also support tab-completion.

The body of the display is also used to display other content, such as: the help file, histograms of the log messages over time, and SQL results. The views are organized into a stack so that any time you activate a new view with a key press or command, the new view is pushed onto the stack. Pressing the same key again will pop the view off of the stack and return you to the previous view. Note that you can always use ‘q’ to pop the top view off of the stack.

KEY BINDINGS

Views

? View/leave this help message. q Leave the current view or quit the program when in the log file view. Q Similar to ‘q’, except it will try to sync the top time between the current and former views. For example, when leaving the spectrogram view with ‘Q’, the top time in that view will be matched to the top time in the log view.

a/A Restore the view that was previously popped with ‘q/Q’. The ‘A’ hotkey will try to match the top times between the two views.

X Close the current text file or log file.

Spatial Navigation

g/home Move to the top of the file. G/end Move to the end of the file. If the view is already at the end, it will move to the last line. space/pgdn Move down a page. b/bs/pgup Move up a page. j/cr/down-arrow Move down a line. k/up-arrow Move up a line. h/left-arrow Move to the left. In the log view, moving left will reveal the source log file names for each line. Pressing again will reveal the full path. l/right-arrow Move to the right. H/Shift+left Move to the left by a smaller increment. L/Shift+right Move to the right by a smaller increment.

e/E Move to the next/previous error. w/W Move to the next/previous warning. n/N Move to the next/previous search hit. When pressed repeatedly within a short time, the view will move at least a full page at a time instead of moving to the next hit. f/F Move to the next/previous file. In the log view, this moves to the next line from a different file. In the text view, this rotates the view to the next file.

/< Move horizontally to the next/previous search hit.

o/O Move forward/backward to the log message with a matching ‘operation ID’ (opid) field.

u/U Move forward/backward through any user bookmarks you have added using the ‘m’ key. This hotkey will also jump to the start of any log partitions that have been created with the ‘partition-name’ command.

y/Y Move forward/backward through the log view based on the “log_line” column in the SQL result view.

s/S Move to the next/previous “slow down” in the log message rate. A slow down is detected by measuring how quickly the message rate has changed over the previous several messages. For example, if one message is logged every second for five seconds and then the last message arrives five seconds later, the last message will be highlighted as a slow down.

Chronological Navigation

d/D Move forward/backward 24 hours from the current position in the log file.

1-6/Shift 1-6 Move to the next/previous n’th ten minute of the hour. For example, ‘4’ would move to the first log line in the fortieth minute of the current hour in the log. And, ‘6’ would move to the next hour boundary.

0/Shift 0 Move to the next/previous day boundary.

r/R Move forward/backward based on the relative time that was last used with the ‘goto’ command. For example, executing ‘:goto a minute later’ will move the log view forward a minute and then pressing ‘r’ will move it forward a minute again. Pressing ‘R’ will then move the view in the opposite direction, so backwards a minute.

Bookmarks

m Mark/unmark the line at the top of the display. The line will be highlighted with reverse video to indicate that it is a user bookmark. You can use the ‘u’ hotkey to iterate through marks you have added.

M Mark/unmark all the lines between the top of the display and the last line marked/unmarked.

J Mark/unmark the next line after the previously marked line.

K Like ‘J’ except it toggles the mark on the previous line.

c Copy the marked text to the X11 selection buffer or OS X clipboard.

C Clear all marked lines.

Display options

P Switch to/from the pretty-printed view of the log or text files currently displayed. In this view, structured data, such as XML, will be reformatted to make it easier to read.

t Switch to/from the text file view. The text file view is for any files that are not recognized as log files.

Ctrl-L (Lo-fi mode) Exit screen-mode and write the displayed log lines in plain text to the terminal until a key is pressed. Useful for copying long lines from the terminal without picking up any of the extra decorations.

T Toggle the display of the “elapsed time” column that shows the time elapsed since the beginning of the logs or the offset from the previous bookmark. Sharp changes in the message rate are highlighted by coloring the separator between the time column and the log message. A red highlight means the message rate has slowed down and green means it has sped up. You can use the “s/S” hotkeys to scan through the slow downs.

i View/leave a histogram of the log messages over time. The histogram counts the number of displayed log lines for each bucket of time. The bars are layed out horizontally with colored segments representing the different log levels. You can use the ‘z’ hotkey to change the size of the time buckets (e.g. ten minutes, one hour, one day).

I Switch between the log and histogram views while keeping the time displayed at the top of each view in sync. For example, if the top line in the log view is “11:40”, hitting ‘I’ will switch to the histogram view and scrolled to display “11:00” at the top (if the zoom level is hours).

z/Shift Z Zoom in or out one step in the histogram view.

v Switch to/from the SQL result view.

V Switch between the log and SQL result views while keeping the top line number in the log view in sync with the log_line column in the SQL view. For example, doing a query that selects for “log_idle_msecs” and “log_line”, you can move the top of the SQL view to a line and hit ‘V’ to switch to the log view and move to the line number that was selected in the “log_line” column. If there is no “log_line” column, lnav will find the first column with a timestamp and move to corresponding time in the log view.

TAB/Shift+TAB In the SQL result view, cycle through the columns that are graphed. Initially, all number values are displayed in a stacked graph. Pressing TAB will change the display to only graph the first column. Repeatedly pressing TAB will cycle through the columns until they are all graphed again.

p In the log view: enable or disable the display of the fields that the log message parser knows about or has discovered. This overlay is temporarily enabled when the semicolon key (;) is pressed so that it is easier to write queries.

                In the DB view: enable or disable the display of values
                in columns containing JSON-encoded values in the top row.
                The overlay will display the JSON-Pointer reference and
                value for all fields in the JSON data.

CTRL-W Toggle word-wrapping.

CTRL-P Show/hide the data preview panel that may be opened when entering commands or SQL queries.

x Toggle the hiding of log message fields. The hidden fields will be replaced with three bullets and highlighted in yellow.

F2 Toggle mouse support.

Query

/ Start a search for the given regular expression. The search is live, so when there is a pause in typing, the currently running search will be canceled and a new one started. The first ten lines that match the search will be displayed in the preview window at the bottom of the view. History is maintained for your searches so you can rerun them easily. Words that are currently displayed are also available for tab-completion, so you can easily search for values without needing to copy-and-paste the string. If there is an error encountered while trying to interpret the expression, the error will be displayed in red on the status line. While the search is active, the 'hits' field in the status line will be green, when finished it will turn back to black.

                Note: The regular expression format used by is PCRE
                (Perl-Compatible Regular Expressions).  For example,
                if you wanted to search for ethernet device names,
                regardless of their ID number, you can type:

                  eth\\d+

                You can find more information about Perl regular
                expressions at:

                  http://perldoc.perl.org/perlre.html

                If the search string is not valid PCRE, a search
                is done for the exact string instead of doing a
                regex search.

: Execute an internal command. The commands are listed below. History is also supported in this context as well as tab-completion for commands and some arguments. The result of the command replaces the command you typed.

; Execute an SQL query. Most supported log file formats provide a sqlite virtual table backend that can be used in queries. See the SQL section below for more information.

|

CTRL+] Abort command-line entry started with ‘/’, ‘:’, ‘;’, or ‘ ’.

Session

CTRL-R Reset the session state. This will save the current session state (filters, highlights) and then reset the state to the factory default.

MOUSE SUPPORT (experimental)

If you are using Xterm, or a compatible terminal, you can use the mouse to mark lines of text and move the view by grabbing the scrollbar.

NOTE: You need to manually enable this feature by setting the LNAV_EXP environment variable to “mouse”. F2 toggles mouse support.

COMMANDS

help Switch to this help text view.

adjust-log-time Change the time of the top log line to the given time. All other log lines in the same file will also be adjusted using the same offset. After the adjustment, the displayed timestamp will be rewritten to the new time and highlighted with a magenta color.

                This command is useful for lining up log files that
                have timestamps from different machines.

unix-time Convert a unix-timestamp in seconds to a human-readable form or vice-versa. BEWARE OF TIMEZONE DIFFERENCES.

current-time Print the current time in human-readable form and as a unix-timestamp.

goto <line#|N%|abs-time|relative-time> Go to the given line number, N percent into the file, or the given timestamp in the log view. If the line number is negative, it is considered an offset from the last line. Relative time values, like ‘a minute ago’, ‘an hour later’, and many other formats are supported. When using a relative time, the ‘r/R’ hotkeys can be used to move the same amount again or in the same amount in the opposite direction.

relative-goto <line#|N%> Move the current view up or down by the given amount.

comment Add a comment to the top line in the log view. The comment will be saved in the session and will be available the next time the file is loaded. Searches will also scan the comment for any matches.

clear-comment Clear the comment that is attached to the top line in the log view.

tag [ [... ]] Attach a tag to the top line in the log view. The tags are prefixed with a '#', if they don t have one already. And, like comments, they are saved in the session and searchable.s

untag [ [... ]] Detach a tag from the top line in the log view.

delete-tags [ [... ]] Detach the tags from all log lines.

next-mark error|warning|search|user|file|meta Move to the next bookmark of the given type in the current view.

prev-mark error|warning|search|user|file|meta Move to the previous bookmark of the given type in the current view.

hide-lines-before <abs-time|relative-time> Hide lines that are before the given time. The given time can be absolute (e.g. 2015-10-11) The hidden lines can be shown again with the ‘show-lines-before-and-after’ command.

hide-lines-after <abs-time|relative-time> Hide lines that are after the given time. The time can The hidden lines can be shown again with the ‘show-lines-before-and-after’ command.

show-lines-before-and-after Show lines that were hidden by the ‘hide-lines’ commands.

hide-fields [ ... ] Hide large log message fields by replacing them with an ellipsis. You can quickly switching between showing and hiding hidden fields using the 'x' hotkey.

show-fields [ ... ] Show log messages fields that were previously hidden with the ':hide-fields' command.

highlight Highlight strings that match the given regular expression.

clear-highlight Clear an existing highlight created with the 'highlight' command.

filter-in Only display lines that match the given regular expression. This command can be used multiple times to add more lines to the display. The number of lines that are filtered out will be shown in the bottom status bar as 'Not Shown'. Note that filtering only works in the log and plain text views. There is also a limit of 32 filters per-view at any one time.

filter-out Do not display lines that match the given regular expression. This command can be used multiple times to remove more lines from the display. If a 'filter-in' expression is also active, it takes priority and the filter-out will remove lines that were matched by the 'filter-in'. The number of lines that are filtered out will be shown in the bottom status bar as 'Not Shown'. Note that filtering only works in the log and plain text views. There is also a limit of 32 filters per-view at any one time. While entering the regular expression at the command-prompt, the matches in the current text view will be highlighted in red after a short delay.

disable-filter Disable an active 'filter-in' or 'filter-out' expression.

enable-filter Enable a inactive 'filter-in' or 'filter-out' expression.

delete-filter Permanently delete a filter.

set-min-log-level Set the minimum level to display in the log view. You can use TAB to view the possible values.

disable-word-wrap Disable word wrapping in the log and text file views. enable-word-wrap Enable word wrapping in the log and text file views.

open [:] Open the given file within lnav and, if it is a text file, switch to the text view and jump to the given line number.

close Close the current text file or log file. You can also close the current file by pressing ‘X’.

spectrogram Generate a spectrogram for a numeric log message field or SQL result column. The spectrogram view displays the range of possible values of the field on the horizontal axis and time on the vertical axis. The horizontal axis is split into buckets where each bucket counts how many log messages contained the field with a value in that range. The buckets are colored based on the count in the bucket: green means low, yellow means medium, and red means high. The exact ranges for the colors is computed automatically and displayed in the middle of the top line of the view. The minimum and maximum values for the field are displayed in the top left and right sides of the view, respectively.

append-to Append any marked lines to the given file.

write-to Write any marked lines to the given file. Use '-' to write the lines to the terminal.

write-csv-to Write the results of a SQL query to a CSV-formatted file. When running in non-interactive mode, a dash can be used to write to standard out. Use '-' to write the data to the terminal.

write-json-to Write the results of a SQL query to a JSON-formatted file. The contents of the file will be an array of objects with each column in the query being a field in the objects. When running in non-interactive mode, a dash can be used to write to standard out. Use '-' to write the data to the terminal.

pipe-to Send the currently marked lines to the given shell command for processing and open the resulting file for viewing.

pipe-line-to Send the top log message to the given shell command for processing and open the resulting file for viewing. The known and discovered message fields are available as environment variables. For example, log_procname in a syslog message.

session Add the given command to the session file (\~/.lnav/session). Any commands listed in the session file are executed on startup. Only the highlight, word-wrap, and filter-related commands can be added to the session file.

create-logline-table Create an SQL table using the top line of the log view as a template. See the "SQL QUERIES" and "DYNAMIC LOG LINE TABLE" sections below for more information.

delete-logline-table Delete an SQL table created by the 'create-logline-table' command.

create-search-table [] Create an SQL table that extracts information from logs using the provided regular expression or the last search that was done. Any captures in the expression will be used as columns in the SQL table. If the capture is named, that name will be used as the column name, otherwise the column name will be of the form 'col_N'.

delete-search-table Delete a table that was created with create-search-table.

switch-to-view Switch the display to the given view, which can be one of: help, log, text, histogram, db, and schema.

zoom-to Change the histogram zoom level to the given value, which can be one of: day, 4-hour, hour, 10-minute, minute

redraw Force redraw the window.

partition-name Mark the top line in the log view as the start of a new partition with the given name. The current partition name will be reflected in the top status bar next to the current time as well as being available in the 'log_part' column of the SQL log tables. Partitions can be used to make it easier to query subsections of log messages.

clear-partition Clear the partition the top line is a part of.

echo [-n] Display the given message. Useful for scripts to message the user. The '-n' option leaves out the new line at the end of the message.

eval <cmd|query|file> Execute the given command, query, or file after doing environment variable substitution. The argument to this command should start with a ‘:’, ‘;’, or ‘|’ signify the type of action to perform (command, SQL query, execute script).

pt-min-time [|] Set/get the minimum time range for any papertrail queries. Absolute or relative time values can be specified.

pt-max-time [|] Set/get the maximum time range for any papertrail queries. Absolute or relative time values can be specified.

config

reset-config

save-config Save the current configuration state to: ~/.lnav/config.json

quit Quit lnav.

SQL QUERIES (experimental)

Lnav has support for performing SQL queries on log files using the Sqlite3 “virtual” table feature. For all supported log file types, lnav will create tables that can be queried using the subset of SQL that is supported by Sqlite3. For example, to get the top ten URLs being accessed in any loaded Apache log files, you can execute:

;select cs_uri_stem, count(*) as total from access_log group by cs_uri_stem order by total desc limit 10;

The query result view shows the results and graphs any numeric values found in the result, much like the histogram view.

The builtin set of log tables are listed below. Note that only the log messages that match a particular format can be queried by a particular table. You can find the file format and table name for the top log message by looking in the upper right hand corner of the log file view.

Some commonly used format tables are:

access_log Apache common access log format syslog_log Syslog format strace_log Strace log format generic_log ‘Generic’ log format. This table contains messages from files that have a very simple format with a leading timestamp followed by the message.

NOTE: You can get a dump of the schema for the internal tables, and any attached databases, by running the ‘.schema’ SQL command.

The columns available for the top log line in the view will automatically be displayed after pressing the semicolon (;) key. All log tables contain at least the following columns:

log_line        The line number in the file, starting at zero.
log_part        The name of the partition.  You can change this
                column using an UPDATE SQL statement or with the
                'partition-name' command.  After a value is set,
                the following log messages will have the same
                partition name up until another name is set.
log_time        The time of the log entry.
log_idle_msecs  The amount of time, in milliseconds, between the
                current log message and the previous one.
log_level       The log level (e.g. info, error, etc...).
log_mark        The bookmark status for the line.  This column
                can be written to using an UPDATE query.
log_path        The full path to the file.
log_text        The raw line of text.  Note that this column is
                not included in the result of a 'select *', but
                it does exist.

The following tables include the basic columns as listed above and include a few more columns since the log file format is more structured.

syslog_log

log_hostname   The hostname the message was received from.
log_procname   The name of the process that sent the message.
log_pid        The process ID of the process that sent the message.

access_log (The column names are the same as those in the Microsoft LogParser tool.)

c_ip           The client IP address.
cs_username    The client user name.
cs_method      The HTTP method.
cs_uri_stem    The stem portion of the URI.
cs_uri_query   The query portion of the URI.
cs_version     The HTTP version string.
sc_status      The status number returned to the client.
sc_bytes       The number of bytes sent to the client.
cs_referrer    The URL of the referring page.
cs_user_agent  The user agent string.

strace_log (Currently, you need to run strace with the “-tt -T” options so there are timestamps for each function call.)

funcname       The name of the syscall.
result         The result code.
duration       The amount of time spent in the syscall.
arg0 - arg9    The arguments passed to the syscall.

These tables are created dynamically and not stored in memory or on disk. If you would like to persist some information from the tables, you can attach another database and create tables in that database. For example, if you wanted to save the results from the earlier example of a top ten query into the “/tmp/topten.db” file, you can do:

;attach database “/tmp/topten.db” as topten; ;create table topten.foo as select cs_uri_stem, count(*) as total from access_log group by cs_uri_stem order by total desc limit 10;

DYNAMIC LOG LINE TABLE (experimental)

(NOTE: This feature is still very new and not completely reliable yet, use with care.)

For log formats that lack message structure, lnav can parse the log message and attempt to extract any data fields that it finds. This feature is available through the “logline” log table. This table is dynamically created and defined based on the message at the top of the log view. For example, given the following log message from “sudo”, lnav will create the “logline” table with columns for “TTY”, “PWD”, “USER”, and “COMMAND”:

May 24 06:48:38 Tim-Stacks-iMac.local sudo[76387]: stack : TTY=ttys003 ; PWD=/Users/stack/github/lbuild ; USER=root ; COMMAND=/bin/echo Hello, World!

Queries executed against this table will then only return results for other log messages that have the same format. So, if you were to execute the following query while viewing the above line, you might get the following results:

;select USER,COMMAND from logline;

USER COMMAND
root /bin/echo Hello, World!
mal /bin/echo Goodbye, World!

The log parser works by examining each message for key/value pairs separated by an equal sign (=) or a colon (:). For example, in the previous example of a “sudo” message, the parser sees the “USER=root” string as a pair where the key is “USER” and the value is “root”. If no pairs can be found, then anything that looks like a value is extracted and assigned a numbered column. For example, the following line is from “dhcpd”:

Sep 16 22:35:57 drill dhcpd: DHCPDISCOVER from 00:16:ce:54:4e:f3 via hme3

In this case, the lnav parser recognizes that “DHCPDISCOVER”, the MAC address and the “hme3” device name are values and not normal words. So, it builds a table with three columns for each of these values. The regular words in the message, like “from” and “via”, are then used to find other messages with a similar format.

If you would like to execute queries against log messages of different formats at the same time, you can use the ‘create-logline-table’ command to permanently create a table using the top line of the log view as a template.

OTHER SQL FEATURES

Environment variables can be used in SQL statements by prefixing the variable name with a dollar-sign ($). For example, to read the value of the HOME variable, you can do:

;SELECT $HOME;

To select the syslog messages that have a hostname field that is equal to the HOSTNAME variable:

;SELECT * FROM syslog_log WHERE log_hostname = $HOSTNAME;

NOTE: Variable substitution is done for fields in the query and is not a plain text substitution. For example, the following statement WILL NOT WORK:

;SELECT * FROM $TABLE_NAME; – Syntax error

Access to lnav’s environment variables is also available via the “environ” table. The table has two columns (name, value) and can be read and written to using SQL SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE statements. For example, to set the “FOO” variable to the value “BAR”:

;INSERT INTO environ SELECT ‘FOO’, ‘BAR’;

As a more complex example, you can set the variable “LAST” to the last syslog line number by doing:

;INSERT INTO environ SELECT ‘LAST’, (SELECT max(log_line) FROM syslog_log);

A delete will unset the environment variable:

;DELETE FROM environ WHERE name=’LAST’;

The table allows you to easily use the results of a SQL query in lnav commands, which is especially useful when scripting lnav.

PAPERTRAIL INTEGRATION

Papertrail is a log management service with free and paid plans at:

http://papertrailapp.com

To configure lnav to communicate with the papertrail service, you will need to set the PAPERTRAIL_API_TOKEN environment variable. You can get your API token from your user profile, available here:

https://papertrailapp.com/user/edit

Searching papertrail using lnav can be done by prefixing the search terms with “pt:” and passing the value as a file name. For example, to search for log messages with the string ‘Critical Error’ when starting lnav you can do the following:

$ setenv PAPERTRAIL_API_TOKEN xxxxxxxxx $ lnav “pt:’Critical Error’”

If lnav is already started, you can use the ‘:open’ command like so:

:open pt:’Critical Error’

If you just want to tail your logs in papertrail, you can pass an empty search string (i.e. “pt:”).

Only one papertrail search can be active at a time. So, if an ‘:open’ is done with a new query, the previous query will be closed first.

CONTACT

For more information, visit the lnav website at:

http://lnav.org

For support questions, email:

lnav@googlegroups.com

REFERENCE